Archive for the ‘Danish Course’ Category
Danish / Norwegian / Swedish?
I have purchased a Teach Yourself Danish and Teach Yourself Swedish course with CDs. I’d like to learn both languages and I do know that Danish and Swedish are very similar to each other, and they are even more so to Norwegian. Every one of these languages has their own drawback which makes it harder to learn: Danish has the stød and Norwegian and Swedish have the sing-songy quality (tone). However, is there an advantage in diving into one language first before the next one? Would familiarizing myself with Danish first make it a little easier to learn Swedish (even thouugh both Norwegian and Swedish have their roots in Danish). Thanks.
first of all, it’s inaccurate to say that Norwegian and Swedish have their roots in Danish. according to linguists, historically, they all descend from a supposed original language linguists call “Proto-Norse”, which later diverged into (West) Old Norse in Norway, which the Vikings brought with them to Iceland about 1000 years ago, and which has remained virtually unchanged and is known as Modern Icelandic today; and (East) Old Norse, which evolved greatly into the Danish and Swedish of today.
there are today supposed to be some West Norwegian dialects that are still close to Old Norse, while Standard Norwegian orthography seems like a variation of Danish, because of Denmark’s subjugation of Norway for so many centuries. official Norwegian words were spelled the same as Danish, but pronounced completely differently.
be careful in saying that Danish and Swedish are very similar to each other; they are, in the sense that if you study any one of the 3 Scandinavian languages you get a 75-90% “down payment” on the other 2; and they are not, in the sense that Danish and Swedish are pronounced differently from each other, have much vocabulary differentiation, and have varying grammatical forms and constructs one to the other.
the stød and the sing-song qualities you mention as being drawbacks are really the least of your problems; some varieties of Danish don’t even have the stød, and the Swedish spoken in Finland is not all that sing-songy. while studying one first will make you familiar with the others later, i really would suggest studying Danish and Swedish simultaneously, because you will soon enough come across the diverging vocabulary and grammar i mentioned before. otherwise, i do think you would more likely be making substitution errors rather than learning the different forms all together.
Should I become an interpreter or a bartender?
Should I become an interpreter (6 languages) or should I go to bartending school? I already know Danish, English and Icelandic and I’ve been studying French, German and Dutch for almost a year now, but should I go to bartending school when I’ve finished the required school years (3 years left) or go to Europe and practice interpreting for a year and then go to college to study these languages further?
You will probably find more employment opportunities in bartending but the wages are typically low, the room for advancement is non-existant and there’s often a perceived time-limit associated with it. After all, we can’t be young and flirty forever. With interpreting, you will probably see fewer opportunities but they would probably pay better and be with companies that could offer better benefits and incentives. Of those you list, German is expected to be in great demand in the near future. Just make sure you truly have a firm grasp of these languages before chasing a career speaking them. Studying a language and being able to speak it conversationally with someone are two different things.
[mage lang="" source="flickr"]danish language basics[/mage]
in danish does vel mean what?
i want to learn danish cause my cousin who lives in Copenhagen Denmark says its fun and would be awesome if we talk to each other in a different language other than English. and i want to learn!
plz help and if u can send me the basics in the danish language that would be very helpful!
The meaning of “vel” depends on the context. Here are some examples:
It can mean “well”:
Is everything well at home? = Er alt vel hjemme?
It can mean “right?” or “surely”
You will come to my party, right? / Surely you will come to my party? = Du kommer vel til min fest?
It can mean “too much”
This soup is a bit too salty = Suppen er lidt vel salt
It can mean “do you?” or “are you?” or “will you?” etc.:
You don’t like cinnamon, do you? = Du kan ikke lide kanel, vel?
You aren’t going to that party, are you? = Du tager ikke til festen, vel?
“Vel nok” can mean “sure”, as when you want to stress something:
Your neighbor sure is nice = Din nabo er vel nok rar
Those are just a few examples I can think of (:
If you want a translation of some Danish sentences just ask again, okay? (:
General Knowledge Pt.- X
What are the elements of the fisherman’s festival?
Fishermen collect fish at Cha§an Lake, Jilin Province. The fishermen caught more than 50,000 kgs of fish on the first day of the annual Chagan Winter Fishing Festival. Chinese fishermen throw fish into the sky during the celebration of this festival. Hundreds of people attended this festival that runs from December 27,2005 to February 6, 2006. The amount of fish caught will be limited to 2 million kgs. Chagan, home to some 70 species of fish, is one of the 10 largest freshwater lakes in China, and the only place in the north where fishermen catch fish from frozen water.
When was the first iim established?
IIM Calcutta and IIM Ahmedabad were both established in 1961. IIMC tied up with the Alfred P Sloan School of Management (MIT), the government of West Bengal, and the Ford Foundation. IIMA, in its initial years, tied up with the Harvard Business School.
What is sponge iron?
Sponge iron is a metallic product formed by the reduction of iron ore at a temperature just below the fusion point of iron. This product is called sponge iron due to its porous nature. It is also called as direct reduced iron (DRI).
Why are more people right-handed than left-handed?
While it’s not certain why more people are right-handed people than left-handed, there are several theories. One is that the left side of the brain controls speech, and the right side of the body. And so more people are right-handed. Another explanation is based on genetics. Even if both parents are left-handed, there’s only a 26 per cent chance that their offspring would also be left-handed. All these theories have their own loopholes, so one can conclusively explain why more people are right-handed than left-handed.
What is interpol?
Interpol is an international police organisation established in 1923 and has 184 member countries. Its full name is The International Criminal Police Organisation. Its main activity is to promote international police cooperation in nabbing criminals and to check international crime. The existing Constitutions of various countries vis-a-vis the crime are taken into consideration and due respect is given to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Interpol has a president and a secretary-general as its leading officials.
Why do storks fly in an arrow-head formation?
A flock of storks fly in an arrow-head formation headed by a leader bird. The throttle of the wings of the leading bird generates aerodynamic uplift for the bird immediately behind it. By taking advantage of this uplift, the trailing birds maintain itsflight with relatively less effort. This process continues in the whole formation By flying in this ‘V formation, the whole flock adds about 70% greater flying range than if each bird flew of its own. When the leader bird gets tired, another bird § replaces it as the leader. They complete their journey of thousand kilometres by taking turns.
What is the difference between an attorney general and solicitor general?
The attorney general of India is the Indian government’s chief legal advisor, and its primary lawyer in dealing with the Supreme Court of India. The attorney general is usually a highly respected senior advocate of the court, and is appointed by the ruling government. The office of the attorney general was created by the Constitution of India, and attorney generals have the right to participate in the proceedings of Parliament, but cannot vote. Unlike the United States, in India, the attorney general does not have executive authority and is not a government minister; those functions are performed by the law minister. The attorney general is assisted by the solicitor general of India and several additional solicitors general. The solicitor general is the second law officer of the state after the attorney general.
What is a green shoe option in an ipo?
The green shoe option is a clause in the underwriting agreement of an IPO, which allows to sell additional shares, usually 15%, to the public if the demand exceeds expectations and the stock trades above its offering price. This option, also known as the over-allotment provision. It gets its name from the Green Shoe company, which was the first company to allow such an option.
What is the difference between a mayor and a sheriff?
A sheriff is the law-enforcement officer of a county or other civil sub-division of a state. A mayor is the chief executive official of a city/ village/ town and is usually elected.
What is the law of averages?
The law of averages deals with the probability of occurrences in the long term in which one will neither win nor lose all the time. For example, if it rains every day this week, by the law of averages we’re bound to get a sunny day soon. This colloquial term is a popular interpretation of a statistical principle, Bernoulli’s Theorem, formulated in the late 1600s.
When were greeting cards first sent?
In ancient Egypt, New Year’s Day was celebrated by sending presents along with greeting messages on papyrus to friends and relatives. The Romans followed a similar practice. The first-known examples of greeting cards in modern times were sent by Sir Henry Cole, Director of London’s Victoria and Albert Museum, in 1843. Too busy to write Christmas letters, he commissioned an artist, John Horsley to produce a painting of a Christmas scene, which was reproduced on cards.
What is the difference between rock and pop music?
Rock is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars, and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxojihone, are common in some styles. The genre of rock is broad, and its boundaries loosely-defined, with distantly related genres sometimes included. Pop music, in popular and contemporary parlance, is a sub-genre of popular music. Since the term spans many acts (rock, hip-hop, rhythm and blues (R&B), country, dance and operatic pop), it is reasonable to say that ‘pop music’ is a loosely defined category. The term is also used in a derogatory manner by those who feel that pop lacks any musically artistic meaning, or, for lack of better terminology, represents a /betrayal’ from the traditional sound of either the act itself or the specific genre to which the act belongs.
Which other countries celebrate their independence day on august 15?
The Korea, Congo, Liechtenstein and India celebrate their Independence Day on August 15. On August 15,1948, the Republic of Korea was established south of the 38th Parallel. August 15 is celebrated as Liberation Day in Korea. On August 15,1960, the Republic of Congo (Brazzaville) declared its independence from France. Also, Liechtenstein Day is celebrated on August 15.
What is the significance of the international green week?
IGW is an exhibition of the food industry, agriculture and horticulture held in Berlin from January 13-16, 2006. It was first held in 1926. Producers from all over the world use the IGW to test-market food and luxury items and establish a brand image. Exhibitors often organize around national, regional, or product themes. Presentations feature fresh produce; fish, meat, and dairy products. These combine with a vast selection of international wine, beer, and spirits specialties. The IGW also includes direct agricultural sales and the organic products section.
What’s special about the punj-aab express?
The Punj-Aab Express is part of the bus diplomacy between India and Pakistan, the first that links Pakistan and Punjab in India. The 48-seater Volvo bus left Amritsar for Lahore on January 24, 2006. This is the third such initiative after the Delhi-Lahore and the Srinagar-Muzaffarabad bus services. The whole exercise is geared towards encouraging people-to-people contact between the two countries.
What is the holy grail?
The Holy Grail is widely accepted to be the silver chalice used by Jesus Christ at the Last Supper (last meal shared by Jesus and his disciples before he was crucified), which possesses heavenly powers. Many believe, especially non-Catholics, that the Holy Grail holds the secret of Jesus’ bloodline and a secret society of guardians keeps this secret safe.
How are the points in a stock index calculated?
Sensex is a basket of 30 constituent stocks representing a sample of large, representative companies. The base year of sensex is 1978-79 and the actual total market value of the stocks in the index during the base period has been set equal to an indexed value of 100. The index was initially calculated based on the ‘full market capitalization’ methodology (the level of index at any point of time reflects the total market value of 30 component stocks relative to a base period) but was shifted to the free-float methodology from September 1,2003. The sensex’s calculation involves dividing the total market capitalization of 30 companies in the index by the index divisor — the only link to the original base period value of the sensex.
Can february have 30 days?
In the Gregorian calendar, February has 28 days and once in four years, 29 days. However, Sweden had 30 days in February in 1712 while changing over from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. The Soviet Union also had 30 days in February during 1930 and 1931 when they were following a unique revolutionary calendar in which all months had 30 days with five or six holidays, which were not part of any month. It is also said the February had 30 days during leap years between 45 BC and 8 BC in the Julian system of calendar. This is, however, not confirmed.
Why is diesel cheaper than petrol?
Diesel is not cheaper then gasoline or petrol in all European and North American countries. In fact, it is generally more expensive compared to gasoline. Diesel is cheaper in India because it’s believed to be generally used by farmers and truck and bus fleets (local and inter-city buses owned by state governments). It was also believed that cars and motorcyles once considered luxury vehicles use gasoline. Thus, to reduce the burden on farmers and truck and bus fleet operators, diesel is priced lower than petrol in India.
Which is the world’s busiest airport?
According to Airports Council International, the world’s busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic is the Hartsfield-Jackson. Atlanta airport in the US. Next in order of number of passengers is the O’Hare International Airport in Chicago and the Heathrow Airport in London, which is also the world’s busiest international airport.
Which was the first company to be registered in the bse?
It was D.S. Prabhudas & Company (now known as DSP, and a joint venture partner with Merrill Lynch).
Why do chefs wear tall hats?
The heft’s tall hat, also called toque, has its origins in mediaeval Europe, when in some countries, invading barbarian’s targeted intellectuals and skilled workers like chefs causing them to seek shelter in churches. Chefs and others moved around in the guise of priests, wearing tall hats, similar to those worn by the clergy. According to another legend, the hat was modelled after kings’ crowns, to give chefs a sense of importance, lest they spoil the food or even poison it. According to a third theory, all cooks wear hats for hygienic reasons, and the chef, being the chief cook, wears a tall hat symbolising his high status.
Where is the biggest shipbreaking yard?
The world’s biggest ship breaking yard is located at Alang along the west coast of Cambay in Gujarat. Ships from all over the world which have outlived their utility are sent here to be broken up and the material sold as scrap. While it is a highly lucrative business, it’s also seen as dangerous because of the potentially hazardous material that could be still present on these ships. The yard began operations with MV Kota Tenjong which reached there on February 13,1983.
How is the inflation rate calculated?
The inflation rate is worked out from Consumer Price Index values (CPI). The CPI is calculated from the weighted prices of several groups of articles of consumption like food items, machinery, chemicals, metals, building construction material, etc. The inflation rate is the percentage increase or decrease in the values of CPI at a specified time interval.
Who is a recording angel?
A recording angel is a traditional figure in Judaism, Christianity and Islam who, in popular belief, watches over individuals, marking their actions on a tablet for future reward or punishment. The recording angel keeps a general account between man and his Maker. It is widely accepted that the chief recording angel is the archangel Gabriel — the heavenly messenger of God.
When was valentine’s day first celebrated?
In its pagan avatar, Valentine’s was celebrated as the Lupercalia festival, the spring festival of fertility in Rome, around AD 270. Of its various rituals, lots would be drawn with names of boys and girls who would be paired up. Some pairings resulted in romance and marriage. Later, the church in its attempt to purge society of pagan customs decided to celebrate Valentine’s Day in the middle of February — the mating season of birds. St Valentine, who secretly performed marriages during the regime of Emperor Claudius II, came to be associated with it. In AD 498, Pope Gelacius declared February 14 as Valentine’s Day.
What are the features of an all terrain vehicle?
The term all-terrain vehicle (ATV) is used to describe a number of small open motorised tricycles (ATC) or quads designed for off-road use. The main features are a sophisticated, long-travel suspension, a liquid-cooled, two-stroke motor and a fully manual 6-speed (no reverse) transmission. Sport models are generally small, light, two-wheel drive vehicles which accelerate quickly, have a manual transmission, and run at speeds up to 120 kmph. Utility models are generally larger, fourwheel drive vehicles with a maximum speed of up to 104 kmph. They can haul small loads on attached racks or small, dump beds and tow small trailers.
Which country has the oldest flag?
The country with the oldest flag in the world is that of Denmark. The Danish flag, called the Danneborg, dates back to 13th century A.D. It is believed to have been in existence since June 15,1219 though it was officially recognized as the national flag in 1625. Flags, themselves, date further back. Crude flag-like vexilloids were used in Ancient Egypt around 3400 B.C. Early flags were used in China around 1500 B.C. The first modern flag was the Dutch Prinsenvlag; it is no longer in use.
What’s the origin of the phrase, ‘an albatross around one’s neck’?
The phrase comes from the poem ‘The Rime of the Ancient Mariner’ by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, in which the character who shot an albatross is obliged to carry the bird hung around his neck. The phrase refers to the burden a person has to carry.
Which actor has won the most oscars?
Katherine Hepburn holds the distinction of having won the most number of Oscars in Academy Awards history. She’s been nominated a whopping 13 times and took home the statuette on four occasions, for her roles in the films Morning Glory, The Lion in winter, On Golden Pond and Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner.
Which country has the highest number of expatriates?
Muscat has the highest expatriate population of over 6,12,000 persons. So, every third person in Muscat is an expatriate, according to the survey by the Muscat sultanate. Muttrah and Seeb, in particular, are densely populated with expatriates.
Who created the cartoon character tweety bird?
Tweety Bird was created by Warner Brothers’ animation artist Bob Clampett in 1942. He was inspired by an embarrassing photograph of himself as a baby and by his longstanding fascination with baby birds. Tweety Bird’s original name was ‘Orson’. In Tweety Bird’s first cartoon, A Tale of Two Kitties’, Tweety taunted two cats, Babbitt and Catstello. The cute little canary with the big head was originally pink. After censors complained that the bird looked naked because there were no feathers, the colour was changed to yellow.
When did james bond make his debut?
James Bond made his debut in lan Fleming’s book Casino Royale in 1953. This British spy has gone on to save the world from assorted sinister groups and megalomaniacs in several books. His enduring appeal probably lies in high-speed chases involving souped-up cars, charming sultry women and coming up trumps. Several actors have played Bond but the latest choice Daniel Craig has so incensed fans that they have launched a website to vent their anger.
What is the origin of the term “cat’s cradle’?
Cat’s cradle is a game in which an intricately looped string is transferred from the hands of one player to the next, resulting in a succession of loop patterns. It used to be a socio-religious activity carried out by small Greek communities in ancient times. On designated days, members used to transfer such looped strings, called cat’s cradles, from hand to hand to invoke blessings and, bring good luck.
What are mersenne numbers?
Mersenne numbers are named after. Fr Mersenne, a 16th century Italian mathematician. They are one less than powers of 2. The powers of 2 are 2,4,8,16,32,64,128… so Mersenne Numbers are 1,3,7,15,31,63, 127… The importance of these numbers is that when a Mersenne number is a prime p, (the so called Mersenne prime), then the number p(p +1)/2 is a perfect number. Perfect numbers are numbers that are equal to the sum of their own divisors. All the divisors of 6 (other than 6 itself) are 1,2 and 3. Their sum is again 6. So 6 is a perfect number and arises from the Mersenne prime 3. The Mersenne prime 7 gives the perfect number 28, the Mersenne prime 31 leads to the perfect number 496 and so on.
What is chronophobia?
It’s the fear of time, characterised by panic, anxiety, and claustrophobia. Also known as prison neurosis, it’s perhaps the most common anxiety disorder in prison inmates. Sooner or later, almost all prisoners suffer from chronophobia to some degree and become terrified by the duration of their sentence and the passage of tine.
Who’s known as the fifth beatle?
Billy Preston, a keyboard player, is known as the fifth Beatle. He played with the Rolling Stones as well. Preston even had a successful solo career. However, a long battier with drugs finally did him in. He died of a kidney failure on ‘ June 6, 2006. He was 59.
How many austric tribes are there in the world?
Austric tribes are found all over India and even in Myanmar, Malaysia and some south-east Asian islands. The three prime Austric tribes are the Santhals, Kolha and Munda tribes. Other Austric tribes are Ho, Birhor and Kharia. The Austric tribes speak eighteen languages. Some historians believe the Austric tribes laid the foundation of Indian civilisation.
What are junk bonds?
In finance, a high-yield bond (noninvestment grade bond or junk bond) is a bond that is rated below investment’ grade. These bonds •have a higher risk of defaulting, but typically pay high yields in order to make them attractive to investors.
What is a palindrome day?
Palindrome comes from Greek ‘palindromes’, literally ‘running back (again)’, from palin (back, again) and dromos (running). A palindrome day is a day that reads the same any way you look at it. (Either backward or forward) for example: 20/02/2002.
How are rapids classified?
Rapids are classified as: Class I Easy: Fast-moving water with ripples and small waves. Suitable for anyone seven years and older, including physically challenged individuals. Class II Straightforward: Wide, clear, channels. Occasional manoeuvring may be required. Suitable for same group as Class I. Class III Difficult: Moderate irregular waves that may be difficult to avoid. Injuries while swimming are rare. Suitable for those who don’t mind getting wet. Class IV Very Difficult: Intense, powerful, but predictable rapids requiring precise boat handling in turbulent water. Class V Extremely Difficult: Obstructed or violent rapids, which expose participants to above-average risk of endangerment. Class VI: Considered unrunnable.
Which is the highest hill station in india?
Situated at an altitude of 3,505 metres, amidst the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges, Leh, the headquarters of the Ladakh region in Kashmir is the highest hill station in India. Known for its barren beauty, its tourist attractions include Shanti Stupa, Leh Palace, Namgyal Hill and several Buddhist monasteries. Other popular hill stations are Ooty, Darjeeling, Shimla and Nainital.
What’s the origin of the word breakfast?
Breakfast actually signifies breaking the fast observed through the previous night i.e. after dinner, a person doesn’t have any food till the next morning. As that is considered a period of fasting, the next meal is in the morning and that’s called a breakfast.
Why is the london eye called so?
The London Eye is the largest observation wheel in the world, built in 1999 on the south bank of the river Thames in London. Standing 135 metres high, it gives one a panoramic view of London up to 25 kilometres in all directions. Therefore, it’s called ‘London Eye’. An observation wheel is different in design from the Ferris wheel as passenger cars are mounted on the exterior of the wheel instead of suspended from its circumference.
Why is it said that breaking a mirror brings seven years of bad luck?
According to this superstition, breaking a mirror means seven years of bad luck unless you take the pieces outside and bury them under moonlight. Also, if an undisturbed mirror in a house suddenly falls and smashes, it means that there will soon be a death. This superstition goes back to the ancient Romans who believed that the reflection of a person in a mirror is actually his soul. So, breaking a mirror meant bringing extremely bad luck upon oneself because one’s soul was damaged! To prevent this from happening, people had gazing pools in their gardens in which they could look at themselves.
Why are the two sides of a coin known as heads and tails?
Generally, one side has the imprint or embossing of the official head of state or an insignia or emblem and hence it’s called the head side. The tail side name possibly originated from the British ten pence coin, the reverse of which shows a heraldic lion with its tail raised.
What is a car spoiler? Why is it called so?
A spoiler is a device fitted on an aircraft to slow it down by interrupting the flow of air. On a car, spoilers prevent it from being lifted off the road when traveling very fast. It helps maintain better road grip. However, it changes, or rather ‘spoils’ the original look of the car and hence the name. Car owners go for it more as an ex- clusive design statement rather than for its technical use.
Which is the most expensive musical instrument?
Yamaha’s Disklavier Pro 2000, a piano, is the world’s most expensive instrument, priced at $250,000. It’s even considered to be the most technologically advanced and stylish. Recently, Antonio Stradivari’s violin named ‘The Hammer’, made in 1707, was auctioned for a whopping $3.5 million. It broke the record for the highest amount paid for a musical instrument at an auction.
What are special economic zones?
A Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is an area specially designed to attract huge investments by setting up manufacturing, warehousing and/ or trading activities. SEZs can come up in any location, can be of any size and cater to any activity. In India, an SEZ’s area varies from just 10 hectares for IT/BT sectors to more than 1000 hectares for the manufacturing sector. Companies get incentives like land allotments at reduced prices, subsidised power, tax holidays, etc. Currently, there are 15. working SEZs, and approval has been given to 110 others.
Where is turkistan?
Turkistan (or Turkestan) is a historic region of central Asia. Western or Russian Turkistan extended from the Caspian Sea in the west to the Chinese frontier in the east and from the Aral-Irtysh watershed in the north to the borders of Iran and Afghanistan in the south. Eastern or Chinese Turkistan comprised the western provinces of China, now the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Southern or Afghan Turkistan is a small area of Northern Afghanistan. Politically, what was formerly called Russian Turkistan and Soviet Central Asia includes the nations of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan and the southern portion of Kazakhstan. Much of the western part of this region is composed of two deserts, the Kara Kum and the Kyzyl Kum. The eastern part includes the mountains which are part of the Pamir highland and the Tian Shan system.
What is a hostile takeover?
A hostile takeover occurs when the acquirer makes a direct offer to shareholders of a company, without the prior consent of the existing promoter and/or management. The best known recent example is Mittal’s bid for Arcelor, where the existing management is opposing the bid. In such a case, the shareholders get to decide whether the incumbent management stays or the new owner gets to run the company In India, hostile takeovers are very few in comparison to what one sees abroad. It’s mainly because promoter shareholding in India is quite high and the likelihood of FIs supporting the current management is also high.
Why is the palm island, uae viewed with awe?
The Palm Duba-i are man-made islands with three editions so far: The PalmJumeirah, The Palm-Jebel All and The Palm-Deira. The Palm Islands in Dubai are three large artificial islands currently being constructed by Al Nakheel Properties. Each settlement will be in the shape of a palm tree and it’ll have residential communities and resorts. The Palm Jumeirah is a leisure retreat. The Palm-Jebel Alt is being designed as an entertainment resort. The PalmDeira will be built up to 22 metres below sea level.
What does the pin code in india signify?
The postal index number was introduced on August 15,1972. Under this, every head post office and sub-post office were given an individual six-digit number. The digits from left to right progressively pinpoint the geographical position of the post offices. The country has been divided into eight different zones which are as follows: 1 — Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Chandigarh, Punjab, Haryana;2 — Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal; 3 — Rajasthan, Gujarat, Daman & Diu; 4 — Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gpa, Chhattisgarh; 5 — Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh; 6 — Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Lakshadweep; 7 — West Bengal, Orissa and the North East; 8 — Bihar and Jharkhand. The first three digits taken together indicate the sorting under which the office falls. The last three digits specify the particular delivery post office under the sorting unit.
What is the difference between a coupe and a sedan?
Coupes and sedans are different types of automobile body shapes. A sedan is a car with a back seat, where the back seats have more or less the same room as the front seats. Also, it has a separate trunk. A coupe has no back seat or a smaller cramped passenger area and no separate trunk.
What’s special about the c-130 aircraft?
Using its aft loading ramp and door, the C-130 Hercules can accommodate a wide variety of large cargo, including everything from utility helicopters and six-wheeled armoured vehicles to standard pal letised cargo and military personnel. In an aerial delivery role, it can air-drop loads up to 42,000 pounds or use its high-flotation landing gear to land and deliver cargo on rough, dirt strips.
What is the significance of qingming festival?
Qingming festival is a traditional Chinese festival celebrated on the 106th day after the winter solstice, usually occurring around April 5 of the Gregorian calendar. The name denotes a time for people to go outside and enjoy the greenery of spring, and also to tend to graves of the departed. It’s also known as All Souls’ Day, Clear Brightness Fes-tival, Festival for Tending Graves, etcFor the Chinese, it’s a day to remember and honour one’s ancestors. Young and old pray before the ancestors, sweep the tombs and offer food.and libation to the parted ones.
Why do some people have dimples?
Though dimples look cute, in reality, they are a birth defect. The muscles, in the face of a person with dimples, are shorter than they are in most other people. Therefore, they pull on the skin when they smile, and form the indentation i.e. dimple. This is probably due to some development fault in the subcutaneous connective tissue during embryonic development. Sometimes, the muscles lengthen during life and the dimples disappear or lessen as we age. Lots of babies have them but many don’t have them as they grow up.
How old is the british parliament?
The origins of the British Parliament go back to the reign of King Henry III (121672) whose nobles got upset over his plan to appoint his younger son as the king of Sicily This resulted in the ‘Provisions of Oxford’ (1258) by which a permanent baronial council was formed. This was followed by the ‘Provisions of Westminster’ in 1259 reforming the common law. Following Henry’s defiance of both provisions, civil war broke out. When Henry summoned the Knights of Shire to attend his Parliament, the commoners were represented for the first time. In the days of King Edward III (1327-77), two distinct Houses of Parliament emerged in 1341 with the Commons sitting separate from the Upper House. After the passage of Parliament Acts in 1911 and 1949, the primacy of Commons over the Lords was confirmed. The first Parliament of Great Britain came after 1707 with the union with Scotland.
What is nordic walking?
Like Nordic snow, the term Nordic walking is largely unknown in India/This popular sport provides training to cross-country skiers during summer months but ‘without the use of skis. It involves brisk walking using a pole which is 0.7 times the height of the person using it.
What is tyndall effect?
The blue colour of sky and water, visibility of tails of comets and twinkling of stars are due to the phenomenon of scattering of light by colloidal particles as a result of which the path of the beam becomes visible. This phenomenon is called Faraday Tyndall Effect or Tyndall Effect. This effect was first observed by Faraday and later by Tyndall (1869). The illuminated path is called the Tyndall Cone. It’s observed only when these two conditions are met: i) The diameter of the dispersed particles is not smaller than the wavelength of light and ii) The refractive indices of the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium differ in magnitude.
What is harvard classification?
It is a system of classifying stars by their surface temperatures. Also termed as the Harvard 0-M scale, the classification arranges stars in hotter to cooler categories assigned in the order: 0, B, A, F, G, K, M, Further subdivisions are made in type 0 to 9.0-type stars have temperatures of 25000 deg K – 50000 deg K and have a bluish white spectra. Our sun falls in class G with a surface temperature of 5000 deg K —6000 deg K.
Which is the world’s largest power plant?
The largest power plant currently in operation is the Itaipu hydroelectric power plant at the border between Brazil and Paraguay. The power plant uses the water from the Itaipu Dam constructed on river Parana, has 18 generating units, and generates 12,600 MW of electrical power. It was constructed during 1975-1991, and is estimated to be meeting 25% of the electricity needs of Brazil and 78% of Paraguay. The Three Gorges Dam under construction in China, will have, after being completed in 2009, a power plant larger than the Itaipu plant. Its full capacity will be 18,200 MW.
What’s the origin of the word ‘gaucho’?
A gaucho is a South American cattle herder, which is the equivalent of the North American cowboy. Gauchos are commonly found in Pampas, Chacqs or Patagonian grasslands of countries like Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay. There are conflicting theories as to the origin of the word. The most plausible explanation is that the word has joint roots in the native Indian dialects of Quechua and Mapuche, a derivative of their word for orphan (huacho).
What does the gold standard signify?
Gold standard is defined as the use of gold for the standard value of the country. The country redeems the currency equivalent to the value of the gold. This system is claimed to be resistant to credit and debt expansion, since money cannot be created through government fiat currency, and will be protected against artificial inflation by the devaluation of currency. This is supposed to remove ‘currency uncertainty’, supposed to keep the credit of the issuing monetary authority sound arid to encourage lending. Though the price of gold was rather consistent, recently it touched record highs in 25 years.
Which is the oldest stock exchange in the world?
Although the origins of stock exchanges can be’traced back to the stock exchange in Antwerp (1460), the Amsterdam Stock Exchange is considered the oldest in the world. It was established in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC) which issued the first shares on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange. It was the first company to issue stocks and bonds. It was renamed the Amsterdam Bourse and was the first to formally begin trading in securities.
Which city has the highest cost of living?
Tokyo and Osaka are widely regarded as the cities with the highest cost of living by several surveys. Asuncion in Paraguay is considered the cheapest. The parameters determining the cost of living include housing, transport, food, clothing and entertainment.
What’s the origin of the word plagiarism?
The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word plagiare, which means to kidnap or abduct. The word began to be used in the English language sometime during the 1600s. While it originally meant to literally kidnap someone, it gradually came to mean to pass off, in part of whole, someone else’s work as your own, ala Kaavya Viswanathan of ‘Opal Mehta’ fame.
What is investment banking?
Investment banking aids companies in acquiring funds. It also offers advice for a wide range of transactions a company might en- gage in from time to time. It helps corporates generate funds in two ways. The corporate may draw on public funds through the capital market by selling its stock. It may also seek venture capital or private equity in exchange for a stake. Also, investment banking includes the process of wholesaling newly issued government securities, corporate stocks, bonds, and similar financial assets by purchasing large blocks and reselling them in smaller units to the public.
Why is a radio button called so?
It is a series of on-screen buttons that allow only one selection to be made from the group. A selected button will automatically de-select when any other button is selected. Radio buttons come from the early days of radio which had five or six preset station buttons in a row. Pressing one button deselected the other station.
What are the basic elements of flamenco dancing?
Flamenco combines acoustic guitar playing, singing, chanting, dancing and staccato hand-clapping. The flamenco dancer performs with passion, fervour and even tortured expressions but always strives for grace and dignity. Flamenco hand-clapping produces a sharp and piercing sound.
What is a group of geese called?
A group of geese is given a collective noun on the basis of their place. A group of geese on land is called a gaggle; in flight, it becomes a skein, team, or wedge of geese.
What is knocking copy?
Have you seen a cold drink advertisement which make a mockery of other, cold drink advertisements? That’s a good example of knocking copy It is just an advertising gimmick which guarantees immediate attention. It is probably worded like that because it is actually a copy/ remake of the original advertisement but it actually knocks the original product out!
What is the difference between a theorem and a lemma?
A theorem is a proppsition that has been or is to be proved on the basis of explicit assumptions. A theorem has two parts stated in a formal language — a set of assumptions and a conclusion that can be derived from them according to the inference rules. The proof, though necessary for the statements to be classified as a theorem, is not considered part of it. A lemma is a Statement that forms part of the proof of a larger theorem. The distinction is rather arbitrary since one mathematician’s major is another’s minor claim. Gauss s lemma and Zorn’s lemma are interesting enough per se that some authors present the nominal lemma without going on to use it in the proof of any theorem.
What is the difference between a church and a cathedral?
There are four main categories of Christian places of worshipchapel, church, basilica and cathedral The cathedral is a much larger place of worship than a church and is run by a bishop. A church is run by a group of clergymen or priests. The bishop usually resides on the cathedral premises.
What’s unique about mount pinatubo?
Mount Pinatubo is an active volcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The volcano’s eruption in June 1991 came after 500 years of dormancy and was one of the largest and most violent eruptions of the 20th century. Successful predictions saved tens of thousands of people but the surrounding areas were severely damaged. The effects were felt worldwide as the eruption injected large amounts of aerosols into the stratosphere. The aerosols formed a global layer of sulfuric acid haze for many months. Global temperatures dropped by about 1 degree celsius and the ozone destruction was substantial.
When was the water cannon invented?
It was invented in the 19th century Water cannons were originally created for use on fire boats. The first fire boat was deployed in New York city on February 1, 1891. Truckbased water cannons were used for riot control in the US during the 1960s.
How many islands are there in the world?
It’s difficult to put a figure to the exact number on islands as there are different kinds in various water bodies including oceans, seas and rivers. However, in oceans there are over 2,000 islands.
What is the origin of the term ‘to walk away scot-free’?
Scot was the Scottish term for a unit of taxation. Anyone who did not have to pay taxes got off ‘scot-free’. To get away without .paying any price is to walk away scot-free.
Who is the creator of smiley?
The smiley, an emoticon in text messaging parlance, is usually yellow in colour with two dots and a semi-circle. Harvey Ball claimed he created it in 1963 for the State Mutual Life Insurance, Massachusetts. Though there was an attempt to trademark the image, it was never done. Franklin Loufrani of SmileyWorld, London said he created it in 1968 and trademarked it in 80 countries. American retail giant Wal-Mart is now in a legal tussle with Franklin Loufrani and others as it wants to trademark it in the US.
What is guy fawkes night?
Guy Fawkes Night is an annual celebration in Britain, New Zealand, South Africa, the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador and formerly in Australia. It celebrates the failure of the Gunpowder Plot wherein thirteen Catholic conspirators attempted to blow up the Houses of Parliament in London on November 5,1605, when the Protestant King James I was inside. The celebrations involve fireworks displays and bonfires on which effigies of Guy Fawkes, the most famous conspirator, are burnt.
What is the whistle blower bill?
The Whistle Blower Bill was introduced in the US parliament in 2003 to bring into effect an Act related to enabling citizens to disclose, in public interest, any unlawful behaviour or illegal action on the part of others that is noticed by them. The person making such a disclosure is called a whistle blower. The Bill describes the kind of public interest disclosures that are permitted under it, who can make such disclosures and in what form, to whom such disclosures can be made, the responsibility of the person to whom a disclosure is made, the protection to be offered to the whistle blower, and several related issues.
What is the legend of peter pan?
Peter Pan is a fictional character created by Scottish novelist and playwright James Matthew Barrie who wrote three works involving this character. These are ‘Pan in Kensington Gardens’, the play ‘Peter Pan or The Boy Who Would Not Grow Up’ and ‘Peter and Wendy’ later retitled as ‘Peter Pan’. It is a story about a mischievous little boy, Peter Pan, who refuses to grow up. Peter Pan spends his never-ending childhood on the small island of Neverland as leader of his gang, the Lost Boys. Peter invites a girl, Wendy Darling, to Neverland to be a mother to his gang of lost boys. Several adventures later, Wendy decides her place is at home and brings all the boys back to London but Peter remains in Neverland.
What is a klein bottle?
A Klein bottle is a one-sided surface first described by Felix Klein, a German mathematician in 1882. There is no inside or outside and there are no edges. It is best pictured as a cylinder looped back through itself to join with its other end. A true Klein bottle in four dimensions does not intersect itself where it crosses the side, but it is necessary when depicting it in three-dimensional Euclidean space. The simplest way to create such a surface is by taking a strip of paper, twisting it sideways and joining the two ends together.
Which book holds the record for being translated into the most number of languages?
The Bible continues to be the most translated book. The Jewish Tanakh (identical to the Protestant Old Testament) was originally written in Hebrew, with the exception of some passages of Daniel, Ezra, and Jeremiah which are in Ara- maic. The New Testament is widely agreed to have been originally written in Greek. The following numbers are approximations — at least one book of the Bible has been translated into 2,400 of the 6,900 languages listed by SIL International (formerly Summer Institute of Linguistics) including 680 languages in Africa, 590 in Asia, 420 in Oceania, 420 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 210 in Europe and 75 in North America.
Why is the hanging gardens in mumbai called so?
Hanging Gardens in Mumbai is.built on top of Malabar Hill. As the garden is a terrace garden located on a hill slope, it is called Hanging Gardens. It affords a gorgeous view of the sunset over the Arabian Sea, and a panoramic view of Mumbai. The garden was originally laid out in the 1880s over the then main reservoir of the city of Bombay
Why is popcorn associated with movies?
Popcorn is no pop culture fad but a snack that’s over 5,000 years old. But it became an integral part of cinema theatres during the early 20th century. Popcorn vendors set up stalls outside theatres. While theatre owners considered them a nuisance, these vendors attracted moviegoers by the dozen. Theatre owners thought it a good proposition to ask them to set up stalls inside the premises in return for a portion of their sales. Eventually, popcorn vending machines made their appearance and the snack has ever since been associated with movies.
What is hamburg best known for?
Hamburg is the economic centre of Germany and is its second largest city. It’s the nation’s busiest port and a major industrial city Hamburg today is an elegant, modern city and a cultural centre, widely known for its opera, theatres, magazine and book-publishing houses, radio and television broadcasting centres, and film studios. At its centre are two lakes, the Inner Alster and Outer Alster. The St. Pauli district, with its well-known street, the Reeperbahn, includes numerous places of entertainment.
What is the moving drum?
The moving drum is a Japanese washing machine that is said to be the fastest in the world. It needs only 3S minutes to wash 9 kgs of clothes and 145 minutes to dry 6 kgs. Depending on the volume of clothes, it changes angles automatically.
Why spoons are called teaspoons and tablespoons?
A teaspoon is a small spoon commonly used to stir the contents of a cup of tea or coffee. Teaspoons with longer handles are commonly used for ice-cream. Other spoon sizes include the tablespoon and the dessert spoon. Much less common is the coffee spoon, a smaller version of the teaspoon. A tablespoon is a type of spoon used for serving.
What is the petrodollar theory?
Since West Asia controls the major sources of petroleum, it generates huge funds. Though they are parked in different currencies, a major portion is kept in dollars, the world’s most stable currency. Any nation having access to such funds/sources of energy effectively controls the world economy. This has been proved on a number of occasions when Saudi Arabia and other West Asian countries dictate terms to the world. The US being the world’s largest economy, wants to have effective control of such resources. According to the petrodollar theory, oil-rich nations like Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, etc. are to be either directly controlled or made amenable to US economic policies. Hence, even the Iraq war is considered more an economic struggle than the military/ security conflict, as was projected hitherto.
When do we celebrate pi. Day and pi approximation day?
The mathematical constant pi is normally designated as a Greek letter. Its common approximations are 3.14159,3.14 and 22/7 as a fraction. Pi Day is celebrated on March 14 (written as 3-14 in the United States date format) as it is similar to the approximate value of 3.14. It also coincides with Albert Einstein’s birthday. Pi Approximation Day is often celebrated on July 22 (written as 22/7 in the English/European date format) since it tallies with its approximate value 22/7. Some celebrate it on other dates like December 21, November 10 (on leap years November 9) and April .26 (on leap years April 27).
Which is the longest song?
The ‘Longplayer’ is a 1000 yearlong piece of music which started to play on January 1,2000 and will. continue to play, without repetition, until December 31,2999, when it will come back to the point at which it began, and begin again. ‘Longplayer’ could be heard in the relaxation zone of the Millennium Dome in London during its opening in 2000.
Why are chocolates and medicine packed in metallic foil?
Often, chocolates are stored for long periods. When exposed to moisture and light, they deteriorate and the surface can quickly lose its attractive gloss. The best protection is one that provides a total barrier to light, moisture, and to any penetration of aroma and flavour. The natural packaging choice is aluminium foil, also for the ease with which it can be folded tightly to the chocolate surface. Likewise, tablets are individually wrapped in foil so that the airtight material can prevent moisture and air from destabilising and degrading the tablet.
What is the lek paradox?
The lek paradox refers to a phenomenon wherein attractive male and female members of a species will not always produce an attractive offspring. Scientists use it to point out flaws in the Darwinian Theory, which says that two attractive members of a species can only produce an attractive offspring, eventually leading to the entire species acquiring good genes over time. Lek, which is the area in which males of a species gather for competitive mating display is probably derived from the Swedish ‘leka’, which means to play.
What is the origin of the word ‘minnows’?
The word denotes a variety of small, fresh water fish of the carp family It is generally used to refer to small or new players in comparison with the established players in any activity — be it business, sports or politics. Hence; countries like Bermuda, Scotland, etc. are referred to as minnows in the ongoing cricket World Cup.
What is the origin of the seven swaras of indian classical music?
The notes, or swaras, of Indian music are shadjam (sa), rishabham (re or ri), gandharam (ga), madhyamam (ma), panchamam (pa), dhaivatam (dha or da) and nishadam (ni). Each shuddha swara is traditionally known to have originated from the sound of different animals, and some have additional meanings of their own. Each swara is associated with one of the seven chakras of the body. Sa is associated with the sound of the peacock; Re, the bull/skylark; Ga, the goat; Ma, the dove/heron; Pa, the cuckoo/ nightingale; Dha, the horse and Ni, the elephant.
Who has won more than one nobel prize?
Marie Curie won the Nobel prize in 1903 for Physics and 1911 in Chemistry; Linus Pauling in 1954 (for Chemistry) and 1962 (for Peace); John Bardeen in 1956 (for Physics) and 1972; Frederick Sanger in Chemistry in 1958 and 1980. Apart from these individual prizes, the Peace prize has been awarded to the International Red Cross Committee thrice (1917,1944 and 1963) and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees won it twice in 1954 and 1981.
When did human beings begin fishing?
Fishing dates back to when people of ancient times began fishing for food, and pieces of bone were used as hooks and lengths of vine as line. The oldest known painting of an angler using a rod or staff comes from Egypt circa 2000 BC. Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle mentioned angling in their writings, and another Greek writer, Plutarch, gave tips about fishing lines. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries A D, Roman rhetorician Claudius Aelian wrote about Macedonian trout anglers using artificial flies as lures. The methods and tackles have evolved slowly; not until the late 15th century did sport fishing; as it is now known, really begin. In 1496, A Treatyse of Fysshynge wyth an Angle’ first gave details in English about using a fishing rod.
Is earth the only planet to have water?
For long, it was believed that intelligent life existed on Earth because it was the only planet to have water. But recently, an astronomer Traviz Barman at Lowell Observatory, Arizona stated that in the atmosphere of a Jupiter-like large, gaseous planet, water vapour was found. The planet in question has been named HD 209458b and it lies about 150 light years away from Earth in a constellation called Pegasus. Earlier, there have been reports of traces of water being found on Mars by the Global Surveyor spacecraft.
Who was the first indian to have a wax statue in madame tussaud’s museum?
Mahatma Gandhi was the first Indian to have a wax statue at Madame Tussaud’s museum in London. Today’s wax figures at the museum include historical and royal figures, film stars, sports stars and even famous murderers. Amitabh Bachchan was the first Indian film star to have a statue at Madame Tussaud’s museum.
Which is the shortest and longest war in history?
The Anglo-Zanzibar was fought between the United Kingdom and Zanzibar on August 27,1896. With a duration of only 45 minutes, it holds the record of being the shortest war. The Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years War (16511986) was between the Netherlands and the Isles of Scilly (off the south-west coast of the United Kingdom). It is said to have been extended by the lack of a peace treaty for 335 years. It was waged without a single shot fired making it one of the world’s longest wars and the war with the fewest casualties. Despite the uncertain validity of the declaration of war, peace was finally declared in 1986.
Why are the virgin islands called so?
Virgin Islands were discovefred by Christopher Columbus He named them after Saint Ursula and the 11,000 Virgins. This was later shortened to .The Virgins.
Who invented lego bricks?
The Lego Group had very humble beginnings in the workshop of Ole Kirk Christiansen, a poor carpenter from Billund, Denmark. He started creating wooden toys in 1932. Two years later, Kristiansen adopted the name Lego as a brand name for his toys. The name is derived from the Danish words ‘leg godt’, which mean ‘play well’. In 1947, he and his son Godtfred Kirk Christiansen obtained samples of interlocking plastic bricks produced by the company Kiddicraft. These ‘Kiddicraft Self-Locking Building Bricks’ were designed and patented in the UK by Hilary Harry Fisher Page, a child psychologist. In 1949, Lego began producing similar bricks, calling them ‘Automatic Binding Bricks’. The first Lego bricks, manufactured from cellulose acetate, were developed in the spirit of traditional wooden blocks that could be stacked upon one another.
Why does wind blow in gusts and not at uniform velocity?
The rate of air flow varies depending on the properties of the channel through which it flows; narrow channels increase its velocity, and wide channels decrease it. Both direction and velocity at a place keep varying because of: i) the cloud cover which varies randomly from time to time, and hence the heat received by different parts of the earth in the same area varies randomly, causing unpredictable differences m air temperature; ii) the topography of the earth, characterised by hills, water, trees and buildings, is uneven, and the air flows through different areas with different velocities.
Which is the oldest political party in the world?
The oldest existing political party is the Democratic Parts established by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in the 1790s. The party arose from opposition to the policies of the ruling Federalist Party that advocated a republic governed by well-educated elites. Democratic-Republicans idealised the independent (‘yeoman’) farmer as the exemplar of virtue. The party won control of the Presidency and Congress in 1800. The Federalists collapsed as serious rivals to the Democratic-Republicans by the end of the War of 1812. After this, little held the Democratic-Republicans together and the party split. War hero Gen. Andrew Jackson was elected president in 1828; his faction became the Democratic Party.
Why is west bengal called so even though it is in the east?
A hotbed of the Indian Independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was partitioned along religious lines. The western part went to India (and was named West Bengal) while the eastern part joined Pakistan as a province called East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan, giving rise to Bangladesh in 1971). Even today, Bengal is called West Ben- gal even though it is in the East.
When did the practice of gift wrapping begin?
Gifts have been wrapped since the invention of paper in 105 AD in China. Paper-making was kept a secret by the Chinese for centuries, but by 800 AD the process was known in Egypt. The secret spread to Europe, where the first paper mill was started in 1085. Wallpaper, first made in England in 1509, was the forerunner of gift wrapping and was used briefly, but it cracked or tore when folded. By the early 20th century, gifts were wrapped in plain brown paper or tissue.
Who was the first female astronaut?
Valentina Tereshkova (USSR) was the first female astronaut. As a 25-year-old cosmonaut, Valentina spent 71 hours in orbit on the Soviet Vostok in 1963. The cosmonaut, who recently turned 70, expressed
her desire to travel to Mars some day
Who coined the phrase ‘the seven-year itch’ and why is it called so?
The seven-year itch is the inclination to become unfaithful after seven years of marriage. The original itch was a condition that lasted for seven years. It’s been known in the US since the early 19th century as a particularly irritating and contagious skin complaint. The condition is now so easily treated that it’s virtually forgotten. The name; came to be known as a metaphor for all that is annoying.
How did we come to know about the discovery of black holes?
It all started in 1783, when Rev John Mitchell, an amateur British astronomer, proposed that gravity could affect light as well as matter. The modern concept was introduced in 1916. Karl Schwarzschild, a German physicist, discovered a mathematical solution to Einstein’s field equations which describes the space and time around any spherical mass including the distance from the centre of a sphere at which light cannot escape. In 1968, John Wheeler, an American scientist, coined the term black hole. In 1972, with the advance of X-ray technology, evidence was found in a binary star system, Cygnus X-l.
Why is greenland called so though it has no vegetation?
The name Greenland comes from Scandinavian settlers. In the Norse sagas, it is said that Erik the Red was exiled from Iceland for murder. He set out in ships to find land rumoured to be to the northwest. After settling there, he named the land Grfnland (Greenland), possibly to attract more people to settle there. Greenland was also called Gruntland (Groundland) on early maps. Whether Green is an erroneous transcription of Grunt (ground), which refers to shallow bays, or vice-versa, is not known. The southern portion (not covered by glacier) is very green in summer.
Why are magnets used in speakers?
All speakers don’t use magnets. Only magnetic speakers use a magnet to produce mechanical vibration (sound) through the interaction between the magnetic field created by the pulsating electronic signals passing through a coil suspended in the strong magnetic field of the magnet. Other types of speakers like piezo speakers (for example, buzzers in wrist watches) don’t use a magnet. Piezo speakers use piezo electric effect. They generate mechanical vibration by applying an electric signal to a piezo electric crystal.
Why do some countries call their homeland fatherland while others call it motherland?
Fatherland is the nation of one’s fathers or forefathers. It can be viewed as a nationalist concept, insofar as it relates to nations. Groups that refer to their native country as a fatherland associate it primarily with paternal concepts. Motherland is a term that may refer to a mother country, the origin of a colonial power or an’ ethnic group or immigrant. Motherland is otherwise a synonym for fatherland, though perhaps carrying different psychological associations. It especially has the connotation Of one’s country of birth and growing up, with the country being respectfully viewed as a benign mother nurturing its citizens as her children.
What went into the making of the largest fondue at rockefeller centre in new york?
The world’s largest fondue was prepared on February 28,2007 under the supervision of Chef Terrance Brennan, owner of the Artisanal Cheese Center in New York. The fondue weighed 2100 Ibs. Its major ingredients were 1190 Ibs of Gruyere cheese from Wisconsin, 120 Ibs of white wine and some spices. It was prepared in a 220-year-old 2-ton cast iron kettle brought from Louisiana.
Which is the world’s happiest country?
Several studies rate various countries as being the happiest. The University of Leicester rated Denmark as the happiest country. Bhutan even has a Gross Happiness Index which defines prosperity, not just in terms of economic growth but also average level of happiness of the people, A recent University of Warwick study found a correlation between happiness and level of blood pressure of people. On this basis, Sweden tops the list.
What is frankenstein food?
Frankenstein foods are produced Tom genetically modified organisms (GMO) which have had their genome altered through genetic engineering techniques. The general principle of producing a GMO is to insert DNA taken from another organism and modified in the laboratory into an organism’s genome to produce both new and useful traits or phenotypes. These nods have been available since the 1990s, with the principal ones derived from plants being soyabean, maize, canola and cotton seed oil.
If christopher columbus discovered america, then why is america’s name derived from mother sailor called amerigo vespucci?
Christopher Columbus tried to each India taking a western sea route. When he set sail on August 3 1492 to reach India, he landed ashore on October 12 1492, and thought he’d reached India. But he’d actually found a new land. Amerigo Vespucci, another Italian explorer, took the same route as Columbus and reached the same place in 1501. Vespucci realised it was some hitherto unknown place, not India. This new continent was named America after him.
What is the origin of the phrase ‘one’s cup of tea’?
The phrase ‘one’s cup of tea’ is the same as ‘not your cup of tea’. Both have the same origin. People in England are very particular about the tea they drink. There are so many varieties and they won’t drink any other variety other than the one they are used to. It’s a matter of taste. So, anything that one is not used to came to be called not one’s cup of tea.
When did the tradition of the wedding cake begin?
The wedding cake goes back as far as the Roman Empire. Through the years, it has become the focus of a variety of customs and traditions. Around 1900 years ago, the Romans began baking wheat and salt into a small cake to be eaten. During the ceremony, the groom would eat part of this cake and then break the rest over his bride’s head. They were made of wheat, a symbol of fertility and prosperity and taken as a sign of good fortune and a blessing for long life and many children.
How was the mass and radius of the earth calculated?
It is said that the mass (of earth) is calculated to be 5.96 x 1024 kg (March 4). It corresponds to a measly weight of 6.10 tons! The correct weight would be: 5.96 x 1024 kgs.
What’s the island of arezou?
Iran is developing the island of Arezou as a tourist destination exclusively for women. This island on Oroumiyeh Lake in the northwestern part of Iran will completely be a male-free zone. All facilities on this island will be manned by women. The initiative has even received the clearance of the Ayatollah
About the Author
Dr. Ashok Kumar Sharma, M.A.(History); Certificate in Taxidermy(Madras); Certifate in Library Science (TOPPER-ML Sukhadia Uni. Udaipur,(Rajasthan) INDIA. Hobby: Cricket; Postal Stamp Collection and Collection of Quotations since 1981.
Does eating German pancakes, Swedish meatballs, Belgium waffles, French toast and Danish pastry make?
me a multicultural kind of guy? Just food for thought. I’d like to teach the world to eat in perfect harmony…
What happened? It is 12:46 AM on the West Coast. I am going to bed. Not all lumps of coal turn to diamonds. Some stay lumps of coal. One last question: Does ontogeny recapitulate philogeny? Please respond in full with footnotes.
Only if you use your good China to serve it on, and some Egyptian wool napkins with Capo di Monti silverware.
i made friends with a danish boy at school a while ago, i was having lunch with him on top of wall, there was this boy the other side of him, his friend. i gave both of them some chocolate. i started talking 2 the other boy, he was called jerreth, i said it is an unuasual name, + found out he was in my year as well. we started hanging around a bit at this outdoor lunch table. our friends were somwhere else playing silly games, i was sitting + eating my lunch + he was standing the other side taking a bite of his sandwich. 3 younger girls came + were calling him gareth + teasing him. after that we were alone together, we both felt awkward + jus saying “what was your last lesson?” + random things like “what do u normally hav 4 lunch?”. another time he threw me a banana + said this is my friend emily. even though we hardly speak 2 another. how can i be less awkward around him? it was like this around the boy i fancie, my teacher wanted me 2 change seats + he said “sure, she is my friend!”
Lol, is it awekward because you like him? If it isn’t your maybe feeling awkward because you and this guy are alone together, anyone will feel awkward. All you have to do is be more open… that’s how your ogign to solve it.
Dutch Golden Age painting
Types of painting
Frans Hals’ tronie, with the later title Gypsy Girl. 1628-30. Oil on wood, 58 x 52 cm. The tronie includes elements of portraiture, genre painting, and sometimes history painting.
A distinctive feature of the period, compared to earlier European painting, was the small amount of religious painting. Dutch Calvinism forbade religious painting in churches, and though biblical subjects were acceptable in private homes, relatively few were produced. The other traditional classes of history and portrait painting were present, but the period is more notable for a huge variety of other genres, sub-divided into numerous specialized categories, such as scenes of peasant life, landscapes, townscapes, landscapes with animals, maritime paintings, flower paintings and still lifes of various types. The development of many of these types of painting was decisively influenced by 17th-century Dutch artists.
The widely held theory of the “hierarchy of genres” in painting, whereby some types were regarded as more prestigious than others, led many painters to want to produce history painting. However this was the hardest to sell, as even Rembrandt found. Many were forced to produce portraits or genre scenes, which sold much more easily. In descending order of status the categories in the hierarchy were:
history painting, including religious subjects
genre painting or scenes of everyday life
landscape (landscapists were the “common footmen in the Army of Art” according to Samuel van Hoogstraten) and cityscape
Paulus Potter, The Young Bull (1647); 3.4 metres wide. An unusually monumental animal painting that challenges the hierarchy of genres.
The Dutch concentrated heavily on the “lower” categories, but by no means rejected the concept of the hierarchy. Most paintings were relatively small the only common type of really large paintings were group portraits. Painting directly onto walls hardly existed; when a wall-space in a public building needed decorating fitted framed canvas was normally used. For the extra precision possible on a hard surface many painters continued to use wooden panels, some time after the rest of Western Europe had abandoned them; some used copper plates, usually recycling plates from printmaking. In turn the number of surviving Golden Age paintings was reduced by them being overpainted with new works by artists throughout the 18th and 19th century poor ones were usually cheaper than a new canvas, stetcher and frame. There was very little Dutch sculpture during the period; it is mostly found in tomb monuments and attached to public buildings, and small sculptures for houses are a noticeable gap, their place taken by silverware and ceramics. Painted delftware tiles were very cheap and common, if rarely of really high quality, but silver, especially in the auricular style, led Europe. With this exception, the best artistic efforts were concentrated on painting and printmaking.
The art world
Dirck Hals, genre scene of Gentlemen Smoking and Playing Backgammon in an Interior. Note the paintings on the wall of what appears to be a tavern; also here.
Foreigners remarked on the enormous quantities of art produced, and the large fairs where many paintings were sold it has been roughly estimated that over 1.3 million Dutch pictures were painted in the 20 years after 1640 alone. The volume of production meant that prices were fairly low, except for the best known artists; as in most subsequent periods there was a steep price gradient for more fashionable artists. Those without a strong contemporary reputation or fallen out of fashion, including many now considered among the greatest of the period, such as Vermeer, Frans Hals and Rembrandt in his last years, had considerable problems earning a living, and died poor; many artists had other jobs, or abandoned art entirely. In particular the French invasion of 1672 (the Rampjaar, or “year of disaster”), brought a severe depression to the art market, which never quite returned to earlier heights. The distribution of pictures was very wide: “yea many tymes, blacksmithes, cobblers etts., will have some picture or other by their Forge and in their stalle. Such is the generall Notion, enclination and delight that these Countrie Native have to Painting” reported an English traveller in 1640. There were for virtually the first time many professional art dealers, several also significant artists, like Vermeer and his father, Jan van Goyen and Willem Kalf. Rembrandt’s dealer Hendrick van Uylenburgh and his son Gerrit were among the most important.
The Haarlem Painter’s Guild in 1675, by Jan de Bray, whose self-portrait is the second from the left
The technical quality of Dutch artists was generally very high, still mostly following the old medieval system of training by apprenticeship with a master; typically workshops were smaller than in Flanders or Italy, with only one or two apprentices at a time, the number often being restricted by guild regulations. The power of the local artists’ Guild of Saint Luke was declining, but remained considerable in many places, and new ones were established in the period. Amsterdam’s had been founded only in 1579, and Gouda, Rotterdam, Utrecht and Delft were all set up between 1609 and 1611, with the Leiden guild only coming in 1648. With the obvious exception of portraits, many more Dutch paintings were done “speculatively” without a specific commission than was then the case in other countries one of many ways in which the Dutch art market showed the future.
There were many dynasties of artists, and many married the daughters of their masters or other artists. Many artists came from well-off families, who paid fees for their apprenticeships, and they often married into property. Rembrandt and Jan Steen were both enrolled at the University of Leiden for a while. Several cities had distinct styles and specialities by subject, but Amsterdam was the largest artistic centre, because of its great wealth.
Aert de Gelder, Self-portrait as Zeuxis (1685)
Dutch artists were strikingly less concerned about artistic theory than those of many nations, and less given to discussing their art; it appears that there was also much less interest in artistic theory in general intellectual circles and among the wider public than was by then common in Italy. As nearly all commissions and sales were private, and between bourgeois individuals whose accounts have not been preserved, these are also less well documented than elsewhere. But Dutch art was a source of national pride, and the major biographers are crucial sources of information. These are Karel van Mander (Het Schilderboeck, 1604), who essentially covers the previous century, and Arnold Houbraken (De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen “The Great Theatre of Dutch Painters”, 171821). Both followed, and indeed exceeded, Vasari in including a great number of short lives of artists over 500 in Houbraken’s case and both are considered generally accurate on factual matters. The German artist Joachim von Sandrart (1606 – 1688) had worked for periods in Holland, and his Deutsche Akademie in the same format covers many Dutch artists he knew. Houbraken’s master, and Rembrandt’s pupil, was Samuel van Hoogstraten (16271678), whose Zichtbare wereld and Inleyding tot de Hooge Schoole der Schilderkonst (1678) contain more critical than biographical information, and are among the most important treatises on painting of the period. Like other Dutch works on the theory of art, they expound many commonplaces of Renaissance theory and do not entirely reflect contemporary Dutch art, still often concentrating on history painting.
Jacob van Loo, Dana (compare Rembrandt’s treatment).
This category comprises not only paintings that depicted historical events of the past, but also paintings that showed biblical, mythological, literary and allegorical scenes. Recent historical events essentially fell out of the category, and were treated in a realist fashion, as the appropriate combination of portraits with marine, townscape or landscape subjects. Large dramatic historical or Biblical scenes were produced less frequently than in other countries, as there was no local market for church art, and few large aristocratic Baroque houses to fill. More than that, the Protestant population of major cities had been exposed to some remarkably hypocritical uses of Mannerist allegory in unsuccessful Habsburg propaganda during the Dutch Revolt, which had produced a strong reaction towards realism and a distrust of grandiose visual rhetoric. History painting was now a “minority art”, although to an extent this was redressed by a relatively keen interest in print versions of history subjects
More than in other types of painting, Dutch history painters continued to be influenced by Italian painting. Prints and copies of Italian masterpieces circulated and suggested certain compositional schemes. The growing Dutch skill in the depiction of light was brought to bear on styles derived from Italy, notably that of Caravaggio. Some Dutch painters also travelled to Italy, though this was less common than with their Flemish contemporaries, as can be seen from the membership of the Bentvueghels club in Rome. It is noticeable that the most important Dutch artists in all fields, figures such as Rembrandt, Vermeer, Hals, Steen, Jacob van Ruisdael, and others, had not made the voyage.
Utrecht Caravaggism:Dirck van Baburen, Christ crowned with thorns, 1623, for a convent in Utrecht, not a market available in most of Holland.
In the early part of the century many Northern Mannerist artists with styles formed in the previous century continued to work, until the 1630s in the cases of Abraham Bloemaert and Joachim Wtewael. Many history paintings were small in scale, with the German painter (based in Rome) Adam Elsheimer as much an influence as Caravaggio (both died in 1610) on Dutch painters like Pieter Lastman, Rembrandt’s master, and Jan and Jacob Pynas. Compared to Baroque history painting from other countries, they shared the Dutch emphasis on realism, and narrative directness, and are sometimes known as the “Pre-Rembrandtists”, as Rembrandt’s early paintings were in this style.
Utrecht Caravaggism describes a group of artists who produced both history painting and generally large genre scenes in an Italian-influenced style, often making heavy use of chiaroscuro. Utrecht, before the revolt the most important city in the new Dutch territory, was an unusual Dutch city, still about 40% Catholic in the mid-century, even more among the elite groups, who included many rural nobility and gentry with town houses there. The leading artists were Hendrick ter Brugghen, Gerard van Honthorst and Dirck van Baburen, and the school was active about 1630, although van Honthorst continued until the 1650s as a successful court painter to the English, Dutch and Danish courts in a more classical style.
Rembrandt began as a history painter before finding financial success as a portraitist, and he never relinguished his ambitions in this area. A great number of his etchings are of narrative religious scenes, and the story of his last history commission, The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis (1661) illustrates both his commitment to the form and the difficulties he had in finding an audience. Several artists, many his pupils, attempted with some success to continue his very personal style; Govaert Flinck was the most successful. Gerard de Lairesse (16401711) was another of these, before falling under heavy influence from French classicism, and becoming its leading Dutch proponent as both artist and theoretician.
Nudity was effectively the preserve of the history painter, although many portraitists dressed up their occasional nudes (nearly always female) with a classical title, as Rembrandt did. For all their uninhibited suggestiveness, genre painters rarely revealed more than a generous cleavage or stretch of thigh, usually when painting prostitutes or “Italian” peasants.
Bartholomeus van der Helst, Sophia Trip (1645), a member of one of the wealthiest families in Holland.
Frans Hals, Willem Heythuijsen (1634), 47 x 37 cm.
Jan Mijtens, family portrait, 1652, with the boys in “picturesque” dress.
Portrait painting thrived in the Netherlands in the 17th century, as there was a large mercantile class who were far more ready to commission portraits than their equivalents in other countries; a summary of various estimates of total production arrives at between 750,000 and 1,100,000 portraits. Rembrandt enjoyed his greatest period of financial success as a young Amsterdam portraitist, but like other artists, grew rather bored with painting commissioned portraits of burghers: “artists travel along this road without delight”, according to van Mander.
The sombre clothing of male and in many cases female sitters, and the Calvinist feeling that the inclusion of props, possessions or views of land in the background would show the sin of pride leads to an undeniable sameness in many Dutch portraits, for all their technical quality. Even a standing pose is usually avoided, as a full-length might also show pride. Poses are undemonstrative, especially for women, though children may be allowed more freedom. The classic moment for having a portrait painted was upon marriage, when the new husband and wife more often than not occupied separate frames in a pair of paintings. Rembrandt’s later portraits compel by force of characterization, and sometimes a narrative element, but even his early portraits can be dispiriting en masse, as in the roomful of ‘starter Rembrandts’ donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
The other great portraitist of the period is Frans Hals, whose famously lively brushwork and ability to show sitters looking relaxed and cheerful adds excitement to even the most unpromising subjects, though the extremely “nonchalant pose” of the example at left is exceptional: “no other portrait from this period is so informal”. The sitter was a wealthy textile merchant who already commissioned Hals’ only individual life-sized full length portrait ten years before. In this much smaller work for a private chamber he wears riding clothes.Jan de Bray encouraged his sitters to pose costumed as figures from classical history, but many of his works are of his own family. Thomas de Keyser, Bartholomeus van der Helst, Ferdinand Bol and others, including many mentioned below as history or genre painters, did their best to enliven more conventional works. Portraiture, less affected by fashion than other types of painting, remained the safe fallback for Dutch artists.
From what little we know of the studio procedures of artists, it seems that, as elsewhere in Europe, the face was probably drawn and perhaps painted at an initial sitting or two. The typical number of further sittings is unclear – between zero (for a Rembrandt full-length) and 50 appear documented. The clothes were left at the studio and might well be painted by assistants, or a bought in specialist master, although, or because, they were regarded as a very important part of the painting. Married and never-married women can be distinguished by their dress, highlighting how few single women were painted, except in family groups. As elsewhere, the accuracy of the clothes shown is variable – striped and patterned clothes were worn, but artists rarely show them, understandably avoiding the extra work. Lace and ruff collars were unavoidable, and presented a formidable challenge to painters intent on realism. Rembrandt evolved a more effective way of painting patterned lace, laying in broad white stokes, and then painting lightly in black to show the pattern. Another way of doing this was to paint in white over a black layer, and scratch off the white with the end of the brush to show the pattern.
At the end of the century there was a fashion for showing sitters in a semi-fancy dress, begun in England by van Dyck in the 1630s, known as “picturesque” or “Roman” dress. Aristocratic, and militia, sitters allowed themselves more freedom in bright dress and expansive settings than burghers, and religious affiliations probably affected many depictions. By the end of the century aristocratic, or French, values were spreading among the burghers, and depictions were allowed more freedom and display.
A distinctive type of painting, combining elements of the portrait, history, and genre painting was the tronie. This was usually a half-length of a single figure which concentrated on capturing an unusual mood or expression. The actual identity of the model was not important, but they might represent a historical figure and be in exotic or historic costume. Jan Lievens and Rembrandt, many of whose self-portraits are also tronies (especially his etched ones), were among those who developed the genre.
Group portraits, largely a Dutch invention, were popular among the large numbers of civic associations that were a notable part of Dutch life, such as a city’s civilian guard, boards of trustees and regents of guilds and charitable foundations and the like. Especially in the first half of the century, portraits were very formal and stiff in composition. Groups were often seated around a table, each person looking at the viewer. Much attention was paid to fine details in clothing, and where applicable, to furniture and other signs of a person’s position in society. Later in the century groups became livelier and colours brighter.
Scientists often posed with instruments and objects of their study around them. Physicians sometimes posed together around a cadaver, a so called ‘Anatomical Lesson’, the most famous one being Rembrandt’s Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (1632, Mauritshuis, The Hague). Boards of trustees preferred an image of austerity and humility, posing in dark clothing (which by its refinement testified to their prominent standing in society), often seated around a table, with solemn expressions on their faces. Families often had themselves portrayed inside their luxurious homes.
Frans Hals, group militia portrait (1633); 3.3 metres wide.
Most group portraits of civilian guards (Dutch: schutterstuk) were commissioned in Haarlem and Amsterdam. Here the portrayed favoured an image of might, status or even a joyous spirit. The arrangement around a table would give way in later years to a more dynamic composition, the most prominent example being Rembrandt’s famous The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq better known as the Night Watch (1642, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam). In Amsterdam most of these paintings would ultimately end up in the possession of the city council. Many of these are now on display in the Amsterdams Historisch Museum.
Often group portraits were paid for by each portrayed person individually. The amount paid determined each person’s place in the picture, either head to toe in full regalia in the foreground or face only in the back of the group. Sometimes all group members paid an equal sum, which was likely to lead to quarrels when some members gained a more prominent place in the picture than others.
Scenes of everyday life
A typical Jan Steen picture (c. 1663); while the housewife sleeps, the household play.
Genre paintings show scenes that prominently feature figures to whom no specific identity can be attached they are not portraits or intended as historical figures. Together with landscape painting, the development and enormous popularity of genre painting is the most distinctive feature of Dutch painting in this period, although in this case they were also very popular in Flemish painting. Many are single figures, like the Vermeer Milkmaid above; others may show large groups at some social occasion, or crowds. There were a large number of sub-types within the genre: single figures, peasant families, tavern scenes, “merry company” parties, women at work about the house, scenes of village or town festivities (though these were still more common in Flemish painting), market scenes, barracks scenes, scenes with horses or farm animals, in snow, by moonlight, and many more. In fact most of these had specific terms in Dutch, but there was no overall Dutch term equivalent to “genre painting” until the late 18th century the English often called them “drolleries”. Some artists worked mostly within one of these sub-types, especially after about 1625. Over the course of the century, genre paintings tended to reduce in size.
Though genre paintings provide many insights into the daily life of 17th-century citizens of all classes, their accuracy cannot always be taken for granted. Many which seemed only to depict everyday scenes actually illustrated Dutch proverbs and sayings or conveyed a moralistic message the meaning of which may now need to be deciphered by art historians, though some are clear enough. Many artists, and no doubt purchasers, certainly tried to have things both ways, enjoying the depiction of disorderly households or brothel scenes, while providing a moral interpretation the works of Jan Steen, whose other profession was as an innkeeper, are an example. The balance between these elements is still debated by art historians today. The titles given later to paintings often distinguish between “taverns” or “inns” and “brothels”, but in practice these were very often the same establishments, as many taverns had rooms above or behind set aside for sexual purposes: “Inn in front; brothel behind” was a Dutch proverb. The Steen above is very clearly an exemplum, and though each of the individual components of it is realistically depicted, the overall scene is not a plausible depiction of a real moment; typically of genre painting, it is a situation that is depicted, and satirized.
Gerrit van Honthorst (1625), punning visually on the lute in this brothel scene.
The Renaissance tradition of recondite emblem books had, in the hands of the 17th-century Dutch almost universally literate in the vernacular, but mostly without education in the classics turned into the popularist and highly moralistic works of Jacob Cats, Roemer Visscher, and others, often based in popular proverbs. The illustrations to these are often quoted directly in paintings, and since the start of the 20th century art historians have attached proverbs, sayings and mottoes to a great number of genre works. Another popular source of meaning is visual puns using the great number of Dutch slang terms in the sexual area: the vagina could be represented by a lute (luit) or stocking (kous), and sex by a bird (vogelen), among many other options, and purely visual symbols such as shoes, spouts, and jugs and flagons on their side.
The same painters often painted works in a very different spirit of housewives or other women at rest in the home or at work they massively outnumber similar treatments of men, in fact working class men going about their jobs are notably absent from Dutch Golden Age art, with landscapes populated by travellers and idlers but rarely tillers of the soil. This group of subjects was a Dutch invention, reflecting the cultural preoccupations of the age, and was to be adopted by artists from other countries, especially France, in the two centuries following.
Adriaen van Ostade, Peasants in an Interior (1661)
The tradition developed from the realism and detailed background activity of Early Netherlandish painting, which Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder were among the first to turn into their principal subjects, also making use of proverbs. The Haarlem painters Willem Pieterszoon Buytewech, Frans Hals and Esaias van de Velde were important painters early in the period. Buytewech painted “merry companies” of finely dressed young people, with moralistic significance lurking in the detail. Van de Velde was also important as a landscapist, whose scenes included unglamorous figures very different from those in his genre paintings, typically set at garden parties in country houses. Hals was principally a portraitist, but also painted genre figures of a portrait size early in his career. A stay in Haarlem by the Flemish master of peasant tavern scenes Adriaen Brouwer, from 1625 or 1626 gave Adriaen van Ostade his lifelong subject, though he often took a more sentimental approach. Before Brouwer, peasants had normally been depicted outdoors; he usually shows them in a plain and dim interior, though van Ostade’s sometimes occupy ostentatiously decrepit farmhouses of enormous size.
Gabriel Metsu, The Hunter’s Gift, c. 1660, a study in marital relations, with a visual pun.
Van Ostade was as likely to paint a single figure as a group, as were the Utrecht Caravaggisti in their genre works, and the single figure, or small groups of two or three became increasingly common, especially those including women and children. The most notable woman artist of the period, Judith Leyster (16091660), specialized in these, before her husband, Jan Miense Molenaer, prevailed on her to give up painting. The Leiden school of fijnschilder (“fine painters”) were renowned for small and highly finished paintings, many of this type. Leading artists included Gerard Dou, Gabriel Metsu, Frans van Mieris the Elder, and later his son Willem van Mieris, Godfried Schalcken, and Adriaen van der Werff.
This later generation, whose work now seems over-refined compared to their predecessors, also painted portraits and histories, and were the most highly regarded and rewarded Dutch painters by the end of the period, whose works were sought after all over Europe. Genre paintings reflected the increasing prosperity of Dutch society, and settings grew steadily more comfortable, opulent and carefully depicted as the century progressed. Artists not part of the Leiden group whose common subjects also were more intimate genre groups included Nicolaes Maes, Gerard ter Borch and Pieter de Hooch, whose interest in light in interior scenes was shared with Jan Vermeer, long a very obscure figure, but now the most highly regarded genre painter of all.
Hendrick Avercamp painted almost exclusively winter scenes of crowds.
Pieter de Hooch, Courtyard of a House in Delft, 1658, a study in domestic virtue, texture and spatial complexity. The woman is a servant.
Judith Leyster, A Boy and a Girl with a Cat and an Eel; various references to proverbs or emblems have been suggested.
Nicolaes Maes, The idle servant; housemaid troubles were the subject of several of Maes’ works.
Landscapes and cityscapes
Esaias van de Velde, Winter Landscape (1623)
Landscape painting was a major genre in the 17th century. Flemish landscapes (particularly from Antwerp) of the 16th century first served as an example. These had been not particularly realistic, having been painted mostly in the studio, partly from imagination, and often still using the semi-aerial view from above typical of earlier Netherlandish landscape painting in the tradition of Joachim Patinir, Herri met de Bles and Pieter Bruegel the Elder. A more realistic Dutch landscape style developed, seen from ground level, often based on drawings made outdoors, with lower horizons which made it possible to emphasize the often impressive cloud formations that were (and are) so typical in the climate of the region, and which cast a particular light. Favourite subjects were the dunes along the western sea coast, rivers with their broad adjoining meadows where cattle grazed, often with the silhouette of a city in the distance. Winter landscapes with frozen canals and creeks also abounded. The sea was a favourite topic as well since the Low Countries depended on it for trade, battled with it for new land, and battled on it with competing nations.
Important early figures in the move to realism were Esaias van de Velde (15871630) and Hendrick Avercamp (15851634), both also mentioned above as genre painters in Avercamp’s case the same paintings paintings deserve mention in each category. From the late 1620s the “tonal phase” of landscape painting started, as artists softened or blurred their outlines, and concentrated on an atmospheric effect, with great prominence given to the sky, and human figures usually either absent or small and distant. Compositions based on a diagonal across the picture space became popular, and water often featured. The leading artists were Jan van Goyen (15961656), Salomon van Ruysdael (16021670), Pieter de Molyn (15951661), and in marine painting Simon de Vlieger (16011653), with a host of minor figures a recent study lists over 75 artists who worked in van Goyen’s manner for at least a period, including Cuyp.
Jacob van Ruisdael, The Windmill at Wijk (1670)
Aelbert Cuyp, River landscape with Riders (c.1655); Cuyp specialized in golden evening light in Dutch settings.
From the 1650s the “classical phase” began, retaining the atmospheric quality, but with more expressive compositions and stronger contrasts of light and colour. Compositions are often anchored by a single “heroic tree”, windmill or tower, or ship in marine works. The leading artist was Jacob van Ruisdael (16281682), who produced a great quantity and variety of work, using every typical Dutch subject except the Italianate landscape (below); instead he produced “Nordic” landscapes of dark and dramatic mountain pine forests with rushing torrents and waterfalls. His pupil was Meindert Hobbema (16381709), best known for his atypical Avenue at Middelharnis (1689, London), a departure from his usual scenes of watermills and roads through woods. Two other artists with more personal styles, whose best work included larger pictures (up to a metre or more across), were Aelbert Cuyp (16201691) and Philips Koninck (16191688). Cuyp took golden Italian light and used it in evening scenes with a group of figures in the foreground and behind them a river and wide landscape. Koninck’s best works are panoramic views, as from a hill, over wide flat farmlands, with a huge sky.
A different type of landscape, produced throughout the tonal and classical phases, was the romantic Italianate landscape, typically in more mountainous settings than are found in the Netherlands, with golden light, and sometimes picturesque Mediterranean staffage and ruins. Not all the artists who specialized in these had visited Italy. Jan Both (d. 1652), who had been to Rome and worked with Claude Lorrain, was a leading developer of the sub-genre, which influenced the work of many painters of landscapes with Dutch settings, such as Aelbert Cuyp. Other artists who consistently worked in the style were Nicolaes Berchem (16201683) and Adam Pijnacker. Italianate landscapes were popular as prints, and more paintings by Berchem were reproduced in engravings during the period itself than those of any other artist.
A number of other artists do not fit in any of these groups, above all Rembrandt, whose relatively few painted landscapes show various influences, including some from Hercules Seghers (c.1589 c.1638); his very rare large mountain valley landscapes were a very personal development of 16th-century styles. Aert van der Neer (d. 1677) painted very small scenes of rivers at night or under ice and snow.
Landscapes with animals in the foreground were a distinct sub-type, and were painted by Cuyp, Paulus Potter (16251654), Adriaen van de Velde (16361672) and Karel Dujardin (16261678, farm animals), with Philips Wouwerman painting horses and riders in various settings. The cow was a symbol of prosperity to the Dutch, hitherto overlooked in art, and apart from the horse by far the most commonly shown animal; goats were used to indicate Italy. Potter’s The Young Bull is an enormous and famous portrait which Napoleon took to Paris (it later returned) though livestock analysts have noted from the depiction of the various parts of the anatomy that it appears to be a composite of studies of six different animals of widely different ages.
Pieter Jansz Saenredam, Assendelft Church, 1649, with the gravestone of his father in the foreground.
Architecture also fascinated the Dutch, churches in particular. At the start of the period the main tradition was of fanciful palaces and city views of invented Northern Mannerist architecture, which Flemish painting continued to develop, and in Holland was represented by Dirck van Delen. A greater realism began to appear and the exteriors and interiors of actual buildings were reproduced, though not always faithfully. During the century understanding of the proper rendering of perspective grew and were enthusiastically applied. Several artists specialized in church interiors. Pieter Jansz Saenredam, whose father Jan Saenredam engraved sensuous nude Mannerist goddesses, painted unpeopled views of now whitewashed Gothic city churches. His emphasis on even light and geometry, with little depiction of surface textures, is brought out by comparing his works with those of Emanuel de Witte, who left in the people, uneven floors, contrasts of light and such clutter of church furniture as remained in Calvinist churches, all usually ignored by Saenredam. Gerard Houckgeest, followed by van Witte and Hendrick van Vliet, had supplemented the traditional view along a main axis of the church with diagonal views that added drama and interest. Gerrit Berckheyde specialized in lightly populated views of main city streets, squares, and major public buildings; Jan van der Heyden preferred more intimate scenes of quieter Amsterdam streets, often with trees and canals. These were real views, but he did not hesitate to adjust them for compositional effect.
Jacob van Ruisdael, View of Haarlem; Ruisdael is a central figure, with more varied subjects than many landscapists.
Jan Both, Italian landscape of the type Both began to paint after his return from Rome.
Jan van Goyen, Dune landscape; an example of the “tonal” style
The Grote Markt and Sint-Bavokerk, Haarlem, 1696, by Gerrit Berckheyde.
Salomon van Ruisdael, typical View of Deventer Seen from the North-West (1657); an example of the “tonal phase”.
The Dutch Republic relied on trade by sea for its exceptional wealth, had naval wars with Britain and other nations during the period, and was criss-crossed by rivers and canals. It is therefore no surprise that the genre of maritime painting was enormously popular, and taken to new heights in the period by Dutch artists; as with landscapes, the move from the artificial elevated view typical of earlier marine painting was a crucial step. Pictures of sea battles told the stories of a Dutch navy at the peak of its glory, though today it is usually the more tranquil scenes that are highly estimated.
More often than not, even small ships fly the Dutch tricolour, and many vessels can be identified as naval or one of the many other government ships. Many pictures included some land, with a beach or harbour viewpoint, or a view across an estuary. Other artists specialized in river scenes, from the small pictures of Salomon van Ruysdael with little boats and reed-banks to the large Italianate landscapes of Aelbert Cuyp, where the sun is usually setting over a wide river. The genre naturally shares much with landscape painting, and in developing the depiction of the sky the two went together; many landscape artists also painted beach and river scenes. Artists included Jan Porcellis, Simon de Vlieger, Abraham Storck. Willem van de Velde the Elder and his son are the leading masters of the later decades, tending, as at the beginning of the century, to make the ship the subject, whereas in tonal works of earlier decades the emphasis had been on the sea and the weather. They left for London in 1672, leaving the master of heavy seas, the German-born Ludolf Bakhuizen, as the leading artist.
Pieter Claesz, Vanitas (1630)
Still lifes were a great opportunity to show one’s aptitude in painting textures and surfaces in great detail and with realistic light effects. Food of all kinds laid out on a table, silver cutlery, intricate patterns and subtle folds in table cloths and flowers all challenged painters.
Several types of subject were recognised: banketje were “banquet pieces”, ontbijtjes simpler “breakfast pieces”. Virtually all still-lifes had a moralistic message, usually concerning the brevity of life this is known as the vanitas theme implicit even in the absence of an obvious symbol like a skull, or less obvious one such as a half-peeled lemon (like life, sweet in appearance but bitter to taste). Flowers wilt and food decays, and silver is of no use to the soul. Nevertheless, the force of this message seems less powerful in the more elaborate pieces of the second half of the century.
Abraham van Beyeren (1667); “ostentatious” still life with a mouse above the knife.
Initially the objects shown were nearly always mundane, but from the mid-century the pronkstilleven (“ostentatious still-life”), showing expensive and exotic objects, became more popular. The early realist, tonal and classical phases of landscape painting had counterparts in still-life painting. Willem Claeszoon Heda (1595. 1680) and Willem Kalf (16191693) led the change to the pronkstilleven, while Pieter Claesz (d. 1660) preferred to paint simpler “ontbijt” (“breakfast pieces”), or explicit vanitas pieces. In all these painters, colours are often very muted, with browns dominating, especially in the middle of the century. This is less true of the works of Jan Davidszoon de Heem (16061684), an important figure who spent much of his career based over the border in Antwerp. Here his displays began to sprawl sideways to form wide oblong pictures, unusual in the north, although Heda sometimes painted taller vertical compositions. Still life painters were especially prone to form dynasties, it seems: there were many de Heems and Bosschaerts, Heda’s son continued in his father’s style, and Claesz was the father of Nicholaes Berchem.
Flower paintings formed a sub-group with its own specialists, and were occasionally the speciality of the few women artists, such as Maria van Oosterwyck and Rachel Ruysch; the Dutch also led the world in botanical and other scientific drawings, prints and book illustrations. Despite the intense realism of individual flowers, paintings were composed from individual studies or even book illustrations, and blooms from very different seasons were routinely included in the same composition, and the same flowers reappear in different works, just as pieces of tableware do. There was also a fundamental unreality in that bouquets of flowers in vases were not in fact at all common in houses at the time even the very rich displayed flowers one by one in delftware tulip-holders.
Jacob Gillig, Freshwater Fish (1684)
The Dutch tradition was largely begun by Ambrosius Bosschaert (15731621), a Flemish-born flower painter who had settled in the north by the beginning of the period, and founded a dynasty. His brother-in-law Balthasar van der Ast (d. 1657) pioneered still lifes of shells, as well as painting flowers. These early works were relatively brightly lit, with the bouquets of flowers arranged in a relatively simple way. From the mid-century arrangements that can fairly be called Baroque, usually against a dark background, became more popular, exemplified by the works of Willem van Aelst (16271683).
Painters from Leiden, The Hague, and Amsterdam particularly excelled in the genre. Dead game, and birds painted live but studied from the dead, were another sub-genre, as were dead fish, a staple of the Dutch diet Abraham van Beijeren did many of these. The Dutch were less given to the Flemish style of combining large still-life elements with other types of painting they would have been considered prideful in portraits and the Flemish habit of specialist painters collaborating on the different elements in the same work. But this sometimes did happen Philips Wouwerman was occasionally used to add men and horses to turn a landscape into a hunting or skirmish scene, Berchem or Adriaen van de Velde to add people or farm animals.
Willem van Aelst, Still life with a watch (c.1665), with typical dark background.
Willem Claeszoon Heda, Breakfast Table with Blackberry Pie (1631); Heda was famous for his depiction of reflective surfaces.
Jan Davidszoon de Heem, Vanitas (1629)
Jan Weenix, Still Life with a Dead Peacock (1692), set in the gardens of a large country house.
Frans Post, scene in Dutch Brazil; painted in 1662, some years after the colony was lost.
Many Dutch (and Flemish) painters worked abroad or exported their work; printmaking was also an important export market, by which Rembrandt became known across Europe. The Dutch Gift to Charles II of England was a diplomatic gift which included four contemporary Dutch paintings. English painting was heavily reliant on Dutch painters, with Sir Peter Lely followed by Sir Godfrey Kneller, developing the English portrait style established by the Flemish Anthony van Dyck before the English Civil War. The marine painters van der Velde, father and son, were among several artists who left Holland at the French invasion of 1672, which brought a collapse in the art market. They also moved to London, and the beginnings of English landscape painting were established by several less distinguished Dutch painters, such as Hendrick Danckerts. The Bamboccianti were a colony of Dutch artists who introduced the genre scene to Italy. Jan Weenix and Melchior d’Hondecoeter specialized in game and birds, dead or alive, and were in demand for country house and shooting-lodge overdoors across Northern Europe. Frans Post, a landscapist, and Albert Eckhout, a still-life painter who also turned his hand to native figures, were sent to the brief-lived Dutch Brazil; the much more significant Dutch East Indies were covered much less well artistically.
Philips Wouwerman, Travelers Awaiting a Ferry (1649); a landscape with Wouverman’s trademark highlight of a white horse.
The enormous success of 17th-century Dutch painting overpowered the work of subsequent generations, and no Dutch painter of the 18th centuryor, arguably, a 19th-century ones well known outside the Netherlands. Already by the end of the period artists were complaining that buyers were more interested in dead than living artists.
If only because of the enormous quantities produced, Dutch Golden Age painting has always formed a significant part of collections of Old Master paintings, itself a term invented in the 18th century to describe Dutch Golden Age artists. Taking only Wouvermans in old royal collections, there are more than 60 in Dresden and over 50 in the Hermitage. But the reputation of the period has shown many changes and shifts of emphasis. One nearly constant factor has been admiration for Rembrandt, especially since the Romantic period. Other artists have shown drastic shifts in critical fortune and market price; at the end of the period some of the active Leiden fijnschilders had enormous reputations, but since the mid-19th century realist works in various genres have been far more appreciated. Vermeer was rescued from near-total obscurity in the 19th century, by which time several of his works had been re-attributed to others. However the fact that so many of his works were already in major collections, often attributed to other artists, demonstrates that the quality of individual paintings was recognised even if his collective oeuvre was unknown. Other artists have continued to be rescued from the mass of little known painters: the late and very simple still-lifes of Adriaen Coorte in the 1950s, and the landscapists Jacobus Mancaden and Frans Post earlier in the century.
Gerard ter Borch, Paternal Admonition, or Brothel Scene (c. 1654; Amsterdam version).
Genre paintings were long popular, but little-regarded. Sir Joshua Reynolds, the English leader of 18th-century academic art, made several revealing comments on Dutch art. He was impressed by the quality of Vermeer’s Milkmaid (illustrated at the start of this article), and the liveliness of Hals’ portraits, regretting he lacked the “patience” to finish them properly, and lamented that Steen had not been born in Italy and formed by the High Renaissance, so that his talent could have been put to better use. By Reynold’s time the moralist aspect of genre painting was no longer understood, even in the Netherlands; the famous example is the so-called Paternal Admonition, as it was then known, by Gerard ter Borch. This was praised by Goethe and others for the delicacy of its depiction of a father reprimanding his daughter. In fact to most (but not all) modern scholars it is a proposition scene in a brothel there are two versions (Berlin & Amsterdam) and it is unclear whether a “tell-tale coin” in the man’s hand has been removed or overpainted in either.
In the second half of the 18th century, the down to earth realism of Dutch painting was a “Whig taste” in England, and in France associated with Enlightenment rationalism and aspirations for political reform. In the 19th century, with a near-universal respect for realism, and the final decline of the hierarchy of genres, contemporary painters began to borrow from genre painters both their realism and their use of objects for narrative purposes, and paint similar subjects themselves, with all the genres the Dutch had pioneered appearing on far larger canvases (still lifes excepted).
In landscape painting, the Italianate artists were the most influential and highly regarded in the 18th century, but John Constable was among those Romantics who denounced them for artificiality, preferring the tonal and classical artists. In fact both groups remained influential and popular in the 19th century.
^ In general histories 1702 is sometimes taken as the end if the Golden Age, a date which works reasonably well for painting. Slive, who avoids the term (see p. 296), divides his book into two parts: 1600 – 1675 (294 pages) and 1675 – 1800 (32 pages).
^ Fuchs, 104
^ Lloyd, 15, citing Jonathan Israel. Perhaps only 1% survive today, and “only about 10% of these were of real quality”.
^ Jan Steen was an innkeeper, Aelbert Cuyp was one of many whose wealthy wives pursuaded them to give up painting, although Karel Dujardin seems to have run away from his to continue his work. See their biographies in MacLaren. The fish artist Jacob Gillig also worked as a warder in the Utrecht prison, conveniently close to the fish market.. Bankrupts included: Rembrandt, Frans Hals, Jan de Bray, and many others.
^ Franits, 217 and ff. on 1672 and its effects.
^ a b c Fuchs, 43
^ Prak, 241
^ Lloyd, 97
^ Franits’ book is largely organized by city and by period; Slive by subject categories
^ Fuchs, 76
^ See Slive, 296-7 and elsewhere
^ Fuchs, 107
^ Fuchs, 62, R.H. Wilenski, Dutch Painting, “Prologue” pp. 27-43, 1945, Faber, London
^ Fuchs, 62-3
^ Slive, 13-14
^ Fuchs, 62-69
^ Franits, 65. Catholic 17th century Dutch artists included Abraham Bloemaert and Gerard van Honthorst from Utrecht, and Jan Steen, Paulus Bor, Jacob van Velsen, plus Vermeer who probably converted at his marriage. Jacob Jordaens was among Flemish Protestant artists.
^ Slive, 22-4
^ Fuchs, 69-77
^ Fuchs, 77-78
^ Trip family tree. Her grandparents’ various portraits by Rembrandt are famous.
^ Ekkart, 17 n.1 (on p. 228).
^ Shawe-Taylor, 22-23, 32-33 on portraits, quotation from 33
^ Ekkart, 118
^ Ekkart, 130 and 114.
^ Ekkart (Marike de Winkel essay), 68-69
^ Ekkart (Marike de Winkel essay), 66-68
^ Ekkart (Marike de Winkel essay), 69-71
^ Ekkart (Marike de Winkel essay), 72-73
^ Another version at Apsley House, with a different composition, but using most of the same moralizing objects, is analysed by Franits, 206-9
^ Fuchs, 42 and Slive, 123
^ Slive, 123
^ Franits, 1, mentioning costume in works by the Utrecht Caravagggisti, and architectural settings, as especially prone to abandon accurate depiction.
^ Franits, 4-6 summarizes the debate, for which Svetlana Alpers’ The Art of Describing (1983) is an important work (though see Slive’s terse comment on p. 344). See also Franits, 20-21 on paintings being understood differently by contemporary individuals, and his p.24
^ On Diderot’s Art Criticism. Mira Friedman.p. 36
^ Fuchs, 39-42, analyses two comparable scenes by Steen and Dou, and p. 46.
^ Fuchs, pp 54, 44, 45.
^ Slive, 191
^ Explored at length by Schama in his Chapter 6. See also the analysis of The Milkmaid (Vermeer), claimed by different art historians for each tradition.
^ Franits, 24-27
^ Franits, 34-43. Presumably these are intended to imply houses abandoned by Catholic gentry who had fled south in the Eighty Years War. His self-portrait shows him, equally implausibly, working in just such a setting.
^ Franits, 180-182, though he strangely seems to discount the possibility that the couple are married. Married or not, the hunter clearly hopes for a return from his gift of (punning) birds, though the open shoe and gun on the floor, pointing in different directions, suggest he may be disappointed. Metsu used opposed dogs several times, and may have invented the motif, which was copied by Victorian artists. A statue of Cupid presides over the scene.
^ Fuchs, 80
^ Franits, 164-6.
^ MacLaren, 227
^ Franits, 152-6. Schama, 455-460 discusses the general preoccupation with maidservants, “the most dangerous women of all” (p. 455). See also Franits, 118-119 and 166 on servants.
^ Slive, 189 the study is by H.-U. Beck (1991)
^ Slive, 190 (quote), 195-202
^ Derived from works by Allart van Everdingen who, unlike Ruysdael, had visited Norway, in 1644. Slive, 203
^ a b Slive, 225
^ Rembrandt owned seven Seghers; after a recent fire only 11 are now thought to survive how many of Rembrandt’s remain is unclear.
^ Slive, 268-273
^ Slive, 273-6
^ Slive, 213-216
^ MacLaren, 79
^ Slive, 279-281. Fuchs, 109
^ Fuchs, 113-6
^ and only a few others, see Slive, 128, 320-321 and index, and Schama, 414. The outstanding woman artist of the age was Judith Leyster.
^ Fuchs, 111-112. Slive, 279-281, also covering unseasonal and recurring blooms.
^ Slive, 287-291
^ Slive, 212
^ See Reitlinger, 11-15, 23-4, and passim, and listings for individual artists
^ See Reitlinger, 483-4, and passim
^ Slive, 319
^ Slive, 191-2
^ Slive, 144 (Vermeer), 41-2 (Hals), 173 (Steen)
^ Slive, 158-160 (coin quote), and Fuchs, 147-8, who uses the title Brothel Scene. Franits, 146-7, citing Alison Kettering, says there is “deliberate vagueness” as to the subject, and still uses the title Paternal Admonition.
^ Reitlinger, I, 11-15. Quote p.13
For more details and many more painters see Dutch Golden Age, List Of People Painters and List of Dutch painters. MacLaren is the main source for biographical details.
“Ekkart”: Rudi Ekkart and Quentin Buvelot (eds), Dutch Portraits, The Age of Rembrandt and Frans Hals, Mauritshuis/National Gallery/Waanders Publishers, Zwolle, 2007, ISBN 9781857093629
Franits, Wayne, Dutch Seventeenth-Century Genre Painting, Yale UP, 2004, ISBN 0300102372
Fuchs, RH, Dutch painting, Thames and Hudson, London, 1978, ISBN 0500201676
Ingamells, John, The Wallace Collection, Catalogue of Pictures, Vol IV, Dutch and Flemish, Wallace Collection, 1992, ISBN 0900785373
Lloyd, Christopher, Enchanting the Eye, Dutch Paintings of the Golden Age, Royal Collection Publications, 2004, ISBN 1902163907
MacLaren, Neil, The Dutch School, 16001800, Volume I, 1991, National Gallery Catalogues, National Gallery, London, ISBN 0947645-99-3
Prak, Maarten, “Guilds and the Development of the Art Market during the Dutch Golden Age.” In: Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art, vol. 30, no. 3/4. (2003), pp. 236-251.
Reitlinger, Gerald; The Economics of Taste, Vol I: The Rise and Fall of Picture Prices 1760-1960, Barrie and Rockliffe, London, 1961
Schama, Simon, The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age, 1987
Shawe-Taylor, Desmond and Scott, Jennifer, Bruegel to Rubens, Masters of Flemish Painting, Royal Collection Publications, London, 2008, ISBN 9781905686001
Slive, Seymour, Dutch Painting, 16001800, Yale UP, 1995, ISBN 0300074514
Alpers, Svetlana. The Art of Describing: Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983
Categories: History of the Netherlands | Dutch culture | Dutch Golden Age paintings | Western art | Dutch Golden Age | Baroque painting | Dutch Golden Age painters
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